A Fuzzy Based Energy Efficient Clustering Routing Protocol in Underwater Sensor Networks

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of computer engineering, Islamic azad university of Najafabad

2 Faculty of computer engineering, University of Isfahan

3 3MSc in Management information technology, Payame Noor, Teheran

4 Farhang 10th


The provision of proper routing methods in wireless sensor networks is important due to the sensors' limited hardware and software resources. Some important metrics should be achieved with the use of an efficient routing algorithm, such as low packet loss, improved quality of service, and low energy consumption. Clustering-based routing algorithms have a more efficient performance in the case of link breakages, compared to the other table-based methods. Therefore, a new clustering-based routing algorithm is proposed in this paper that takes the sensors' energy limitation into consideration. The proposed method is designed based on a three-step fuzzy logic. The steps are used to determine the cluster head node and to discover and select a suitable route. In the proposed fuzzy system, the best selection is done based on the existing real-time information. Simulation results show that the proposed method results in a 7% reduction in the network energy consumption simultaneous with a higher packet delivery ratio up to 4% in comparison with IDACB, as the basic algorithm.


1- M. Ayaz, I. Baig, A. Abdullah and I. Faye, “A survey on routing techniques in underwater wireless sensor networks,” Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1908-1927, Nov. 2011.
2- A. Khasawneh,M. Shafie Bin Abd Latiff, O. Kaiwartya and H. Chizari, “A reliable energy-efficient pressure-based routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor network,” Wireless Networks, 24, pp. 2061-2075, Feb. 2017.
3- A. Ahmad, A. Sheeraz, M. Alam, I. Azim Niaz and N. Javaid, “On energy efficiency in underwater wireless sensor networks with cooperative routing,” Telecommun, vol. 72, pp. 173-188, Jan. 2017.
4- S. Lee, Y. Jeong, E. Moon and D. Kim, “An Efficient MOP Decision Method Using Hop Interval for RPL-Based Underwater Sensor Networks,” Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 93, no. 4, April 2017.
5- N. Goyal, M. Dave and A. K. Verma, “Improved Data Aggregation for Cluster Based Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks,” of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section A: Physical Sciences, vol. 87, pp. 235-245, Feb. 2017.
6- C. Zidi, F. Bouabdallah and R. Boutaba, “Routing design avoiding energy holes in underwater acoustic sensor networks,” Wireless Communicationsand Mobile Computing, Feb. 2016, doi.org/10.1002/wcm.2666.
7- J. Li, X. Jiang and IT. Lu, “Energy Balance Routing Algorithm Based on Virtual MIMO Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Journal of Sensors, 2014, Article ID 589249, doi.org/10.1155/2014/589249.
8- Ahmed, N. Javaid, FA. Khan, MY. Durrani, A. Ali, A. Shaukat, MM. Sandhu, ZA. Khan and U. Qasim, “Co-UWSN: Cooperative Energy-Efficient Protocol for Underwater WSNs,” Int. Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, April 2015, doi.org/10.1155/2015/891410.
9- A. Joshi, S. Dhongdi, R. Sethunathan, P. Nahar and K. R. Anupama, “Energy Efficient Clustering Based Network Protocol Stack for 3D Airborne Monitoring System,” Journal of Computer Networks and Communications, 2017, Article ID 8921261, doi.org/10.1155/2017/8921261.
10- N. Goyal, M. Dave and A.K. Verma, “Data aggregation in underwater wireless sensor network: Recent approaches and issues,” Journal of King Saud University-Computer and Information Sciences, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 275-286, July 2019.
11-  K. Ovaliadis and N. Savage, “Cluster protocols in Underwater Sensor Networks: A Research Review,” Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review , vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 171-175, July 2014.
12- M. Hong, Ch. Yookun and H. Junyoung, “Enhancing the Reliability of Head Nodes in Underwater Sensor Networks,” Sensors, vol. 12, no. 2, pp.1194-1210, Dec. 2012.
13- S. Kumar and R. Sethi, “An Improved Clustering Machanism to Improve NeworkLife for Underwater WSN,” Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS), vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 43-47, 2013.
14- R.M. Gomathi , J. Martin Leo Manickam, A. Sivasangari, P. Ajitha, "Energy efficient dynamic clustering routing protocol in underwater wireless sensor networks," Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 415-432, April 2020.
15- Nassiri, M. Karimi, R. Mohammadi, and M. Abbasi, “EEARP - an Efficient and Energy Aware Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks,” ECTI-Trans. Electrical Eng. Electronics & Comm.,  vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 145-157, August 2020.
16- S. Saxena, S. Mishra and M. Singh, “Clustering Based on Node Density in Heterogeneous Under-Water Sensor Network,” Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science, vol. 5, no. 7, pp.49-55, June 2013.
17- N. Goyal, M. Dave and A. Verma, “Fuzzy Based Clustering and Aggregation Technique for Under Water Wireless Sensor Networks,” Conference on Electronics and Communication System (lCECS), 2014, Coimbatore, India.
18- S. Souiki, M. Hadjila and M. Feham, “Fuzzy Based Clustering and Energy Efficient Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks”, Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC), vol.7, no. 2, pp. 33-44, March 2015.
19- S.K. Singh, R. Duvvuru, J.P. Singh, “Performance Impact of TCP and UDP on the Mobility Models and Routing Protocols in MANET,” In: Mohapatra D.P., Patnaik S. (eds) Intelligent Computing, Networking, and Informatics. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 243. 2014, Springer, New Delhi. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-1665-0_90.