An Optimized Service Differentiated Congestion Management protocol for delay constrained traffic in Healthcare WSN's

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Farhang 10th

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Engineering and Information Technology, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran


Abstract—This work proposes a novel congestion management protocol for constrained delay traffic and optimized rate control for HWSNs. The proposed protocol consists of congestion avoidance and control. We distinguish between high and low priority traffics which are serviced upon their priority and QoS requirements. For high priority traffic, we control end to end delay constrains with node output scheduling weights. For low priority traffics firstly we avoid congestion using a new Active Queue Management (AQM) algorithm that uses distinct virtual queue's situation for a single physical queue in order to decide accepting or dropping the received packets from child nodes. If acceptance occurs for the incoming packet, congestion is detected by the proposed protocol using a three-state machine as well as a virtual queue status. Afterward, child’s sending rate is adjusted using an optimization function. Results of simulation indicate goal achievement for the protocol proposed.


1- Torun, T. van Kasteren, O. D. Incel, and C. Ersoy, “Complexity versus page hierarchy of a GUI for elderly homecare applications,” Proceedings of the 13th international conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs - Volume Part I. Springer-Verlag, Linz, Austria, pp. 689-696, 2012.
2- Wu, J. Redouté, and M. R. Yuce, “WE-Safe: A Self-Powered Wearable IoT Sensor Network for Safety Applications Based on LoRa,” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 40846-40853, 2018.
3- Darwish and A. E. Hassanien, “Wearable and implantable wireless sensor network solutions for healthcare monitoring,” Sensors (Basel), vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 5561-5595, 2011.
4- M. Alam, H. Malik, M. I. Khan, T. Pardy, A. Kuusik, and Y. Le Moullec, “A Survey on the Roles of Communication Technologies in IoT-Based Personalized Healthcare Applications,” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 36611-36631, 2018.
5- Zhang, Z. L. Yu, Z. Gu, Y. Li, and Z. Lin, “Multichannel Electrocardiogram Reconstruction in Wireless Body Sensor Networks Through Weighted ℓ1,2 Minimization,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 2024-2034, Sept. 2018.
6- Milutinovic, K. Decroix, V. Naessens, and B. De Decker, “Commercial home assistance (ehealth) services,” Proceedings of the 2011 IFIP WG 11.4 international conference on Open Problems in Network Security. Springer-Verlag, Lucerne, Switzerland, pp. 28-42, 2012.
7- Islam, S. I. Ahamed, C. S. Hasan, and C. O. Brien, “Home-Healthcare-Network (h2n): an autonomous care-giving system for elderly people,” Proceedings of the 7th conference on Workgroup Human-Computer Interaction and Usability Engineering of the Austrian Computer Society: information Quality in e-Health. Springer-Verlag, Graz, Austria, pp. 245–262, 2011.
8- Virone et al., “An Assisted Living Oriented Information System Based on a Residential Wireless Sensor Network,” Distributed Diagnosis and Home Healthcare, 2006. D2H2. 1st Transdisciplinary Conference on. pp. 95-100, 2006.
9- Ko, C. Lu, M. B. Srivastava, J. A. Stankovic, A. Terzis, and M. Welsh, “Wireless Sensor Networks for Healthcare,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 98, no. 11. pp. 1947-1960, Nov. 2010.
10- A. Rezaee, M. H. Yaghmaee, A. M. Rahmani, and A. H. Mohajerzadeh, “HOCA: Healthcare Aware Optimized Congestion Avoidance and control protocol for wireless sensor networks,” J. Netw. Comput. Appl., vol. 37, no. 0, pp. 216–228, Jan. 2014.
11- Wang, B. Li, K. Sohraby, M. Daneshmand, and Y. Hu, “Upstream congestion control in wireless sensor networks through cross-layer optimization,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 25, no. 4. pp. 786–795, May 2007.
12- El Mougy et al., “A context and application-aware framework for resource management in dynamic collaborative wireless M2M networks,” J. Network and. Computer Appl., vol. 44, pp. 30-45, Sept. 2014.
13- Brahma, M. Chatterjee, K. Kwiat, and P. K. Varshney, “Traffic management in wireless sensor networks: Decoupling congestion control and fairness,” Computer Commun., vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 670-681, Mar. 2012.
14- A. N. binti W. Abdullah, N. Yaakob, R. Badlishah, A. Amir, and S. A. binti Yah, “On the effectiveness of congestion control mechanisms for remote healthcare monitoring system in IoT environment - A review,” in 2016 3rd International Conference on Electronic Design (ICED), 2016, pp. 348-353.
15- M. Monowar, M. O. Rahman, A.-S. K. Pathan, and C. S. Hong, “PHTCCP: Prioritized Heterogeneous Traffic-Oriented Congestion Control Protocol for WSNs,” Int. Arab J. Inf. Technol., vol. 9,No 1, no. 1, 2012.
16- Y. Wan, S. B. Eisenman, and A. T. Campbell, “CODA: congestion detection and avoidance in sensor networks,” Proceedings of the 1st international conference on Embedded networked sensor systems. ACM, Los Angeles, California, USA, pp. 266-279, 2003.
17- Q. Tao and F. Q. Yu, “ECODA: enhanced congestion detection and avoidance for multiple class of traffic in sensor networks,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron., vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 1387-1394, Aug. 2010.
18- T. Ee and R. Bajcsy, “Congestion control and fairness for many-to-one routing in sensor networks,” Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Embed. networked Sens. Syst., p. 148, 2004.
19- B. Akan and I. F. Akyildiz, “Event-to-sink reliable transport in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 13, no. 5. pp. 1003-1016, Oct. 2005.
20- Hull, K. Jamieson, and H. Balakrishnan, “Mitigating congestion in wireless sensor networks,” Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Embed. networked Sens. Syst. - SenSys ’04, p. 134, 2004.
21- Wang, C. Liao, and Z. Tian, “Effective adaptive virtual queue: a stabilizing active queue management algorithm for improving responsiveness and robustness,” IET Communications, vol. 5, no. 1. pp. 99-109, 2011.
22- Floyd and V. Jacobson, “Random early detection gateways for congestion avoidance,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 397-413, Aug. 1993.
23- Xu and J. Sun, “A simple active queue management based on the prediction of the packet arrival rate,” J. Network Computer Appl., vol. 42, pp. 12-20, June 2014.
24- Raza, N. Aslam, H. Le-Minh, S. Hussain, Y. Cao, and N. M. Khan, “A Critical Analysis of Research Potential, Challenges, and Future Directives in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Commun. Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 39-95, First quarter 2018.
25- Mahdizadeh Aghdam, M. Khansari, H. R. Rabiee, and M. Salehi, “WCCP: A congestion control protocol for wireless multimedia communication in sensor networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 13, pp. 516-534, Feb. 2014.
26- A. Rezaee and F. Pasandideh, “A Fuzzy Congestion Control Protocol Based on Active Queue Management in Wireless Sensor Networks with Medical Applications,” Wireless Pers. Commun., vol. 98, pp. 1-28, Aug. 2017.
27- Chen, Y. Niu, and Y. Zou, “Congestion control and energy-balanced scheme based on the hierarchy for WSNs,” IET Wireless Sens. Syst., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1-8, 2017. DOI: 10.1049/iet-wss.2015.0097.
28- Aslam, K. Xia, A. Ali, and S. Ullah, “Adaptive TCP-ICCW Congestion Control Mechanism for QoS in Renewable Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Sensors Lett., vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 1-4, Dec. 2017. DOI: 10.1109/LSENS.2017.2758822
29- Varshney, “A framework for supporting emergency messages in wireless patient monitoring,” Decision Support Syst., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 981-996, 2008.
30- Samiullah, S. M. Abdullah, A. F. M. I. H. Bappi, and S. Anwar, “Queue management based congestion control in wireless body sensor network,” Informatics, Electronics & Vision (ICIEV), 2012 International Conference on. pp. 493–496, 2012.
31- H. Yaghmaee, N. F. Bahalgardi, and D. Adjeroh, “A Prioritization Based Congestion Control Protocol for Healthcare Monitoring Application in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Wireless Pers. Commun., vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 2605-2631, Apr. 2013.
32- Gambhir, V. Tickoo, and M. Kathuria, “Priority based congestion control in WBAN,” in 2015 Eighth International Conference on Contemporary Computing (IC3), 2015, pp. 428-433.
33- Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan, and D. Estrin, “Directed diffusion: a scalable and robust communication paradigm for sensor networks,” Proceedings of the 6th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking. ACM, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, pp. 56-67, 2000.
34- Tang, S. Dai, J. Li, and S. Li, “Gossip-based scalable directed diffusion for wireless sensor networks,” Int. J. Commun. Syst., vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1418–1430, Feb. 2011.
35- M. Monowar and F. Bajaber, “Towards Differentiated Rate Control for Congestion and Hotspot Avoidance in Implantable Wireless Body Area Networks,” IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 10209-10221, 2017.
36- A. Ameen, A. Nessa, and K. S. Kwak, “QoS Issues with Focus on Wireless Body Area Networks,” Proceedings of the 2008 Third International Conference on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology - Volume 01. IEEE Computer Society, pp. 801–807, 2008.
37- Firoiu and M. Borden, “A study of active queue management for congestion control,” INFOCOM 2000. Nineteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings. IEEE, vol. 3. pp. 1435–1444 vol.3, 2000.
38- B. Reddy and A. Ahammed, “Performance Comparison of Active Queue Management Techniques,” Journal of Computer Science, vol. 4, no. 12. pp. 1020–1023, Dec. 2008.
39- Chen, X.-L. Fan, and J. Zhang, “An Adaptive BLUE Algorithm for Active Queue Management,” Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Control. IEEE Computer Society, pp. 511–514, 2012.
40- A. Khan, S. Ghani, and S. Siddiqui, “A Taxonomy for MAC Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Traffic  Prioritization”, Wireless Personal Commun., vol. 104, pp. 1493-1522, 2019.
41- Kaur, D. A Kumar, “Survey on QoS mechanisms in WSN for computational intelligence based routing protocols,” Wireless Network, vol. 26, pp. 2465-2486, 2020.
42- J.A. Jude and V.C. Diniesh, “DACC: Dynamic agile congestion control scheme for effective multiple traffic wireless sensor networks,” 2017 Int. Conf. on Wireless Commu., Signal Proc. And Networking (WiSPNET), Chennai, 2017, pp. 1329-1333, DOI: 10.1109/WiSPNET.2017.8299979.
43- M. Awan, N. Ashraf, M.Q. Saleem, O.E. Sheta, K.N. Qureshi, A. Zeb, K. Haseeb and  A.S. Sadiq, “A priority-based congestion-avoidance routing protocol using IoT-based heterogeneous medical sensors for energy efficiency in healthcare wireless body area networks,”, Intern. Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 15, 2019.
44- Ahmed, J. Zoua and M.M. Fareed, “PERA: Priority-Based Energy-Efficient Routing Algorithm for WBANs,” Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 96, pp. 4737-4753, 2017.
45- Singh, et al, “Congestion control in wireless sensor networks by hybrid multi-objective optimization algorithm,” Computer Networks , vol. 138, pp. 90-107, June 2018.
46- Shelke, A . Malhotra, P . Mahalle, “A packet priority intimationbased data transmission for congestion free traffic management in wireless sensor networks,” Computers and Electrical  Eng, vol. 64, pp. 248-261, Nov. 2017.
47- N. Hassan, L. Murphy and R. Stewart, “Traffic differentiation and dynamic duty cycle adaptation in IEEE 802.15. 4 beacon enabled WSN for real-time applications,” Telecommunication Systems, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 303-317, 2016.
48- K. Malik, M. Dave, S. K. Dhurandher, I. Woungang, and L. Barolli, “An ant-based QoS-aware routing protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks,”  Soft Computing, vol. 21, pp. 6225-6236, 2017.
49- Pasandideh and A. A. Rezaee, “A fuzzy priority based congestion control scheme in wireless body area networks,” Int. J. of Wireless and Mobile Computing, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1-15, 2018.
50- M. Besher, S. Beitelspacher, J. I. Nieto-Hipolito and M. Z. Ali, "Sensor Initiated Healthcare Packet Priority in Congested IoT Networks," IEEE Sensors Journal, July 2020, DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2020.3012519.
51- Chanak and I. Banerjee, "Congestion Free Routing Mechanism for IoT-Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks for Smart Healthcare Applications," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 223-232, Aug. 2020.