Reduction of the time and simulation calculations of detecting buried targets by using the airborne GPR antenna footprint

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Iran

2 Faculty of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Iran


In this paper, the calculation of the dimensions of the area illuminated by the antenna (antenna footprint) of an Airborne Ground Penetrating Radar (airborne GPR) has been investigated on the surface and the subsurface. In the topic of detecting buried targets by airborne GPR radars, knowing the area illuminated by the radar antenna is very important. The effective factors in determining the dimensions of the illuminated area on the surface are the position of the radar antenna, the azimuth and elevation half-power beam width, and on ground's the subsurface, in addition to the above-mentioned parameters, the relative permittivity of the ground and the height of the desired area to the ground's surface, the type of polarization and the refraction angle of the waves sent from the radar are dependent. By having the dimensions of the illuminated area, we can cell the search area according to it and excite these cells with appropriate power and at a certain time. The advantages of cell confinement according to the antenna footprint are managing the transmitted power and reducing the search time. Another advantage of using a radiation plane to the size of the antenna footprint is the detection of small targets that are close to each other. In this case, when the radiation port is placed above any target, that target will be revealed. In this paper, two methods are provided to simulate the detection of buried targets in CST software. In the first method, a horn antenna is used as a radiation element in the structure itself, but in the second method, the antenna is simulated separately and its parameters are used to calculate the antenna footprint. In the first method, the meshing is very large due to the distance between the antenna and the ground's surface, which increases the simulation time, but in the second method, due to the removal of this distance and the use of the antenna footprint as a radiation element, the meshing And the simulation time is greatly reduced. 


[1].     F. Soldovieri and R. Solimene, “Ground Penetrating Radar Subsurface Imaging of Buried Objects,” Radar Technology. InTech, Jan. 2010.
[2].     M. I. Skolnik, “Radar Handbook, Third Edition,” McGraw-Hill Education, 2008.
[3].     A. S. Turk, K. A. Hocaoglu, and A. A. Vertiy, “Subthe surface Sensing,” Wiley, 2011.
[4].     M. García-Fernández et al., “Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging System for Landmine Detection Using a Ground Penetrating Radar on Board a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle,” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 45100–45112, 2018.
[5].     M. R.. Castellazzi, P. Gloaguen, E. Trépanier, L. and J.Garfias, “ERT, GPR, InSAR, and tracer tests to characterize karst aquifer systems under urban areas: The case of Quebec City,” vol. 310, pp. 45–56, 2018.
[6].     Z. Minxue, “Application of InSAR and GIS techniques to ground subsidence assessment in the Nobi Plain, Central Japan,” Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 14, pp. 492-509, Dec. 2013.
[7].     B. Andrea and L. Pajewski, “Civil engineering applications of ground penetrating radar,” Springer, 2015.
[8].     C. K. N. Hailma, A. Joret, M. Razali, A. Ponniran, M. S. Sulong, and R. Omar, “Frequency-based signal processing technique for pulse modulation ground penetrating radar system,” Signal Processing, vol. 11, pp. 4104–4112, Oct. 2021.
[9].     A. Joret, M. F. L. Abdullah, and M. S. Sulong, “Simulation of GPR system design using cst microwave and MATLAB,” Yanbu Journal of Engineering and Science, vol. 14, May 2021.
[10].   A. Joret, M. F. L. Abdullah, S. H. Dahlan, A. Madun, and M. S. Sulong, “Development of Ground Penetrating Radar Hybrid System Using Vivaldi Antenna for Buried Object Detection,” IJEEAS, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 39–44, Apr. 2018.
[11].   A. Joret, M. S. Sulong, M. F. L. Abdullah, A. Madun, and S. H. Dahlan, “Design and Simulation of Horn Antenna Using CST Software for GPR System,” J Phys Conf Ser, vol. 995, no. 1, p. 1280, Apr. 2018.
[12].   M. García-Fernández et al., “UAV-mounted GPR for NDT applications,” 2018 15th European Radar Conference (EuRAD), pp. 2–5, 2018.
[13].   H. Liu et al., “Detection of Cavities In Urban Cities by 3D Ground Penetrating Radar,” Geophysics, pp. 1–44, Jan. 2021.
[14].   X. Lucas Travassos and M. F. Pantoja, “Ground Penetrating Radar,” in Handbook of Advanced Nondestructive Evaluation, N. Ida and N. Meyendorf, Eds., Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019.
[15].   H. M. Jol, “Ground Penetrating Radar Theory and Applications,” Elsevier Science, 2008.
[16].   D. J. Daniels, “Ground Penetrating Radar (2nd Edition),” Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2004.